And hence my rage since I have grasped in the broadest possible sense what wretched means (the depreciation of my good name, my character, and my aims) suffice to take from me the trust of, and therewith the possibility of obtaining, pupils. Contact Us, The scores from 0 to 10 are automatically scored by our AI Consumer Report tool based upon the data collected. Rée proposed marriage to her, but she, instead, proposed that they should live and study together as "brother and sister", along with another man for company, where they would establish an academic commune. [93][94] Through correspondence, Nietzsche's relationship with Elisabeth continued through cycles of conflict and reconciliation, but they met again only after his collapse. ProductUpdates always strives to keep the latest information. German soldiers received copies of Thus Spoke Zarathustra as gifts during World War I. After severing his philosophical ties with Schopenhauer (who was long dead and never met Nietzsche) and his social ties with Wagner, Nietzsche had few remaining friends. He proposed to Lou Salomé three times and each time was rejected. He began his career as a classical philologist before turning to philosophy. [271] Nietzsche is known today as a precursor to existentialism, post-structuralism and postmodernism. He linked the "salvation and future of the human race with the unconditional dominance"[187] of master morality and called master morality "a higher order of values, the noble ones, those that say Yes to life, those that guarantee the future. "[iii], Deussen cited the episode of Cologne's brothel in February 1865 as instrumental to understand the philosopher's way of thinking, mostly about women. [293][294] Hermann Hesse, similarly, in his Narcissus and Goldmund presents two main characters as opposite yet intertwined Apollonian and Dionysian spirits. [243], In his Egotism in German Philosophy, Santayana claimed that Nietzsche's whole philosophy was a reaction to Schopenhauer. J.N. Nietzsche subsequently concentrated on studying philology under Professor Friedrich Wilhelm Ritschl, whom he followed to the University of Leipzig in 1865. "Nietzsches Staatsangehörigkeit als Rechtsfrage. Living off his pension from Basel and aid from friends, Nietzsche traveled frequently to find climates more conducive to his health and lived until 1889 as an independent author in different cities. 13. sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1888b (, sfn error: no target: CITEREFNietzsche1961 (. In, Ewald, O. His symbolism of the world as "child play" marked by amoral spontaneity and lack of definite rules was appreciated by Nietzsche. ", Nietzsche, Friedrich. His works remain controversial, due to varying interpretations and misinterpretations. 8 (Beyond Good and Evil / On the Genealogy of Morality), 10 Costly Medicare Mistakes You Can't Afford to Make, The Portable Nietzsche (Portable Library), Basic Writings of Nietzsche (Modern Library Classics), When Nietzsche Wept: A Novel Of Obsession (P.S. sfn error: no target: CITEREFMagnus1999 (, Nietzsche, Friedrich. We are a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for us to earn fees by linking to and affiliated sites. She edited his unpublished writings to fit her German nationalist ideology while often contradicting or obfuscating Nietzsche's stated opinions, which were explicitly opposed to antisemitism and nationalism. "[188] Just as "there is an order of rank between man and man", there is also an order of rank "between morality and morality. [313] The Nazis made selective use of Nietzsche's philosophy. ". Preface by Gianni Vattimo, Rowman & Littlefield, London – New York, 2016, This page was last edited on 24 November 2020, at 22:39. At the core of his theory is a rejection of atomism—the idea that matter is composed of stable, indivisible units (atoms). [38], Nietzsche's writing spans philosophical polemics, poetry, cultural criticism, and fiction while displaying a fondness for aphorism and irony. [74][75] On returning to Basel in 1870, Nietzsche observed the establishment of the German Empire and Otto von Bismarck's subsequent policies as an outsider and with a degree of skepticism regarding their genuineness. [84] After discovering the situation, Nietzsche's sister Elisabeth became determined to get Nietzsche away from the "immoral woman". After evaluating and analyzing in detail more than 2,324 customer satisfaction about Best Nietzsche Books, we have come up with the top 10 products you may be interested in Best Nietzsche Books. In 1879, after a significant decline in health, Nietzsche had to resign his position at Basel. He nonetheless was happy to continue with the plans for an academic commune. On at least one occasion, on 23 February 1880, the usually poor Gast received 200 marks from their mutual friend, Paul Rée. By 1882, Nietzsche was taking huge doses of opium, but he was still having trouble sleeping. [318] Bertrand Russell wrote that Nietzsche had exerted great influence on philosophers and on people of literary and artistic culture, but warned that the attempt to put Nietzsche's philosophy of aristocracy into practice could only be done by an organization similar to the Fascist or the Nazi party. Nietzsche characterized this ascetic attitude as a "will to nothingness". The overman does not follow the morality of common people since that favors mediocrity but rises above the notion of good and evil and above the "herd". [175] This leads to constant reassessment of rules (i.e., those of philosophy, the scientific method, etc.) For I am such and such a person. At the beginning of 1888, Brandes delivered in Copenhagen one of the first lectures on Nietzsche's philosophy. Nietzsche saw his own writings as "completely buried and in this anti-Semitic dump" of Schmeitzner—associating the publisher with a movement that should be "utterly rejected with cold contempt by every sensible mind. Pp. [264] He also expressed deep appreciation for Stifter's Indian Summer,[265] Byron's Manfred and Twain's Tom Sawyer. However, Nietzsche referred to Kant as a "moral fanatic", Plato as "boring", Mill as a "blockhead", and of Spinoza, he said: "How much of personal timidity and vulnerability does this masquerade of a sickly recluse betray? The overman is the meaning of the earth. Man is something that shall be overcome. 105–12 in, Leonard Sax, "What was the cause of Nietzsche's dementia? He also acquired the publication rights for his earlier works and over the next year issued second editions of The Birth of Tragedy, Human, All Too Human, Daybreak, and of The Gay Science with new prefaces placing the body of his work in a more coherent perspective. "[277][278][279] Nietzsche made an impact on composers during the 1890s. A basic element in Nietzsche's philosophical outlook is the "will to power" (der Wille zur Macht), which he maintained provides a basis for understanding human behavior—more so than competing explanations, such as the ones based on pressure for adaptation or survival. von Müller, Hans. [205] Furthermore, he emphasized the danger of nihilism and the possibilities it offers, as seen in his statement that "I praise, I do not reproach, [nihilism's] arrival. He is known to have tried using the Hansen Writing Ball, a contemporary typewriter device.